The settlement of Jews in various parts of the island goes as far back as the year 19 of the common era. During the reign of the emperor Tiberius 4,000 Jewish youths were banished from Rome to Sardinia as a penalty for the misdeeds of four Jewish swindlers. Pretending to be collectors for the treasury of the Temple at Jerusalem, the culprits had received enormous sums in money and jewels from Fulvia (wife of the Roman senator Saturninus), who was a sympathizer of Judaism (Josephus, “Ant.” xviii. 3, § 5; comp. also Tacitus, “Annales,” ii. 85, and Suetonius, “Tiberius,” 36). During the early centuries the fate of the Jews in Sardinia resembled that of their brethren in other Roman provinces: so long as pagans ruled the empire the Jews possessed full rights of citizenship, but as Christianity became the dominant power these rights were curtailed.

From the middle of the fifth to the middle of the seventh century Sardinia was governed first by the Vandals and then by the Goths, and the condition of the Jews there was on the whole favorable. There were communities in Oristano, Lula, Gallura, Nora, Sinai (probably founded by Jews), Canahim, Sulcis, Tharros, Alghero, Colmedia, and Cagliari, the capital of Sardinia. An incident which greatly disturbed the Jews occurred in the last-named place toward the end of the sixth century. A converted Jew named Peter placed images of saints in the synagogue on Easter Monday. The Jews lodged a complaint with Pope Gregory the Great, who ordered Bishop Januarius of Cagliari to have the images at once removed (“Epistola,” v.).

Of the period extending from the time of the establishment of a native government in Sardinia (665) to that of the annexation of the island to Aragon (1325), only a few incidents in the life of the Jewish communities are known. The Sardinian historian of the eighth century, Antonio di Tharros, and Delotone, the compiler of the poems of the Sardinian king Gialeto, mention two Jewish scholars of Cagliari, Abraham and Canaim, who deciphered the Phenician inscriptions collected by Gialeto and the Greek and Phenician inscriptions found in the palace of Masu. The Sardinian chronicler Severino relates that the synagogue of Cagliari, which was situated in the quarter called Aliama, was in 790 destroyed by a fire generally attributed to the malevolence of some fanatical Christians (De Castro, “Bibliotheca,” p. 75). During the administration of the province of Arborea by Onroco there often occurred at Oristano bloody conflicts between Jews and Christians, and in order to put an end to these struggles the Jews were ordered to leave the province within two months. On their expulsion from Arborea they settled in the cities of Lugodoro, especially in Lula and Gallura. Traces of their long sojourn in Arborea were still found in the city of Tharros in 1183 by the Mohammedan traveler Mohammed Abu Jabbar.

Under the Spaniards

During the first century of the Spanish domination the Jews of Sardinia enjoyed prosperity. The Aragonian king granted them many privileges, and their numbers were greatly augmented by the arrival of new settlers from Barcelona, Majorca, and other places. Especially favored were the Jews of Alghero, for whom King Alfonso and his successors showed marked friendliness by exempting them from the payment of customs duties and by urging the governors to protect their business interests. On their part the Jews of Alghero often showed their loyalty to the Aragonian kings. In 1370 they contracted many debts in order to supply King Pedro with money and provisions for his armies, and in token of his gratitude the latter forbade their creditors to claim repayment within two years. In the early years of the fifteenth century the community of Alghero subscribed the sum of 1,600 ducats for the exploitation of the royal mines of Iglesias. A Jew named Vidal de Santa Pau gave 600 Alfonsine livres in 1423 for the restoration of the walls of Alghero; in 1459 Zare di Carcassona presented 622 livres for the same purpose.