The first Jewish settlers in Moncalvo presumably arrived after the expulsions from France, as it was one of only three communities following the *Apam (= Asti, *Fossano, Moncalvo) liturgy, which was of French origin.
The first documents attesting to the presence of Jews in Moncalvo date only from the 1570s. When Moncalvo passed to the dukes of Savoy, the situation of the Jews deteriorated. They were confined to a ghetto in 1723 and forbidden to own real estate.
At that time, 176 Jews lived in Moncalvo. By 1836, there were 233 and, in 1860, a new synagogue was dedicated, but toward the end of the 19th century the community declined. On the eve of World War II, the community ceased to exist.